The Chinese have made great scientific advances. But one should also take into consideration the fact that they had nothing in the year 1948 – when the new communist China was established. However, the Soviet Union – which had a government with a more established background in terms of ideology and scientific and technological advances – provided China with whatever they had at their disposal. This was during the Stalin era. The existence of a great country like China – which did not have the same population as today but was a vast and highly populated country anyway – next to the Soviet Union and at the heart of Asia was very valuable for the communist Soviet Union of those days. Therefore, they provided China with whatever they needed. They even provided them with nuclear energy. But our youth achieved nuclear energy through theirs efforts. This is while the Chinese received nuclear energy as a gift from the Soviet Union. They even provided North Korea with nuclear technology – both China and Russia did. If you take a look, you will see that the achievements made by countries like China were all due to the exceptional support which they received from other countries. The same is true of India as well – of course in other aspects. The bitter dispute that was caused between China and Russia – there was a bitter dispute between these two communist countries for several years after the Stalin era, like the dispute between the east and the west, and maybe a little more serious than that – caused the Russians to support India which was a neighboring country to China. For their part, the Chinese started to support Pakistan which was a rival for India. This indicates that political factors played a role in the selection of allies. On the one hand, China provided Pakistan with nuclear technology, and on the other hand, Russia provided India with nuclear energy and helped it make other sorts of accomplishments. That is to say, both India and Pakistan owe their achievements to other countries. Reference: sayyidali.com