Clashes also erupted between protesters and security forces during the demonstration late on Wednesday when the protesters tried to storm the Israeli diplomatic mission.
Security forces said the protesters threw stones at the embassy building. At least ten people were arrested, police said.
Carrying Palestinian flags, the demonstrators urged the government to cut ties with the Israeli regime.
“We will launch the third intifada, " the angry protesters chanted.
The Jordanian government also condemned the Israeli attacks and called for an immediate stop to the airstrikes in Gaza.
Government spokesman Mohammad Momani said that the attacks that killed dozens of Palestinians were " barbaric ".
He said the " barbaric aggression " had " negative repercussions on the Gaza Strip and the whole region ".
" Jordan demands Israel stop all forms of escalation. The international community should actively intervene to stop the Israeli aggression, " Momani said.
More than 70 people have been killed and hundreds others wounded, including women and children, by the new wave of Israeli aggression.
Israel’s military spokesman General Moti Almoz said on Wednesday that “a total of about 430 targets” had been attacked over the past two days.
Palestinian resistance movements in the Gaza Strip have responded to Israel’s aggression by targeting towns and cities deep inside the occupied Palestinian territories.