A number of inventions were made in the medieval Islamic world, a geopolitical region that has at various times extended from Spain and Africa in the west to Afghanistan and the Indian subcontinent in the east.The inventions listed here were developed during the medieval Islamic world, which covers a period from the early Caliphate to the later Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal empires. In particular, the majority of inventions here date back to the Islamic Golden Age, which is traditionally dated from the 8th to the 13th centuries. During this period, artists, engineers, scholars, poets, philosophers, geographers and traders in the Islamic world contributed to agriculture, the arts, economics, industry, Islamic law, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, sociology, and technology, both by preserving earlier Greco - Roman philosophy, inventions and discoveries, then by adding inventions and innovations of their own.Food productionBridge mill:The bridge mill was a unique type of watermill that was built as part of the superstructure of a bridge. The earliest record of a bridge mill is from Córdoba, Spain in the 12th century.Vertical - axle windmill:A small wind wheel operating an organ is described as early as the 1st century AD by Hero of Alexandria. The first vertical - axle windmills were eventually built in Sistan, Persia as described by Muslim geographers. These windmills had long vertical drive - shafts with rectangle shaped blades. They may have been constructed as early as the time of the second Rashidun caliph Umar(634-644 AD), though some argue that this account may have been a 10th - century amendment. Made of six to twelve sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind corn and draw up water, and used in the grist - milling and sugarcane industries. Horizontal axle windmills of the type generally used today, however, were developed in Northwestern Europe in the 1180s.Medical productsMercuric chloride(formerly corrosive sublimate):used to disinfect wounds.MilitaryMarching band and military band:The marching band and military band both have their origins in the Ottoman military band, performed by the Janissary since the 16th century.Hybrid trebuchet:The term Al - Ghadban(The Furious One) was applied to the hybrid trebuchet, though the usage of the term was not consistent and may have taken on a broader meaning.WeaponsEarly Torpedoes:Syrian Al - Hassan er - Rammah ' s manuscript " The Book of Fighting on Horseback and With War Engines "(1280) includes the first known design for a rocket driven torpedo.MusicGuitar:the modern guitar is thought to have developed from the earlier Arabic instrument " Oud. " Introduced through medieval Spain, the guitar was initially referred to as guitarra moresca(moorish guitar) in the 12th century.Lute:while pre - Islamic Arabs had similar instruments, the Lute is thought to have been invented in the 11th century, and spread from Iraq to other areas under Muslim provinces.PotteryAlbarello:An albarello is a type of maiolica earthenware jar originally designed to hold apothecaries ' ointments and dry drugs. The development of this type of pharmacy jar had its roots in the Islamic Middle East.Fritware:It refers to a type of pottery which was first developed in the Near East, where production is dated to the late 1st millennium AD through the second millennium AD Frit was a significant ingredient. A recipe for " fritware " dating to c. 1300 AD written by Abu’l Qasim reports that the ratio of quartz to " frit - glass " to white clay is 10:1: 1. This type of pottery has also been referred to as " stonepaste " and " faience " among other names. A 9th - century corpus of " proto - stonepaste " from Baghdad has " relict glass fragments " in its fabric.Hispano - Moresque ware:This was a style of Islamic pottery created in Islamic Spain, after the Moors had introduced two ceramic techniques to Europe: glazing with an opaque white tin - glaze, and painting in metallic lusters. Hispano - Moresque ware was distinguished from the pottery of Christendom by the Islamic character of its decoration.Iznik pottery:Produced in Ottoman Turkey as early as the 15th century AD. It consists of a body, slip, and glaze, where the body and glaze are " quartz - frit. " The " frits " in both cases " are unusual in that they contain lead oxide as well as soda "; the lead oxide would help reduce the thermal expansion coefficient of the ceramic. Microscopic analysis reveals that the material that has been labeled " frit " is " interstitial glass " which serves to connect the quartz particles.Lusterware:Lustre glazes were applied to pottery in Mesopotamia in the 9th century; the technique soon became popular in Persia and Syria. Earlier uses of lustre are known.Tin - glazing:The tin - glazing of ceramics was invented by Muslim potters in 8th - century Basra, Iraq. The first examples of this technique can be found as blue - painted ware in 8th - century Basra. The oldest fragments found to - date were excavated from the palace of Samarra about fifty miles north of Baghdad.OtherCoffee:The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of the Yemen in southern Arabia. It was in Yemen that coffee beans were first roasted and brewed as they are today. From Mocha, coffee spread to Egypt and North Africa, and by the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia and Turkey. From the Muslim world, coffee drinking spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, and coffee plants were transported by the Dutch to the East Indies and to the Americas.Cryptanalysis and frequency analysis:In cryptology, the first known recorded explanation of cryptanalysis was given by 9th - century Arabian polymath, Al - Kindi(also known as " Alkindus " in Europe), in A Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages. This treatise includes the first description of the method of frequency analysis.First published inWikipedia